Although the best source of vital nutrients is a nutritious diet, consumption of dietary supplements at this latitude helps to keep the immune system strong. Jane Maastik, a member of the Association of Nutrition Advisers in Estonia, will help to provide food supplements for Estonians.

Before you go to a pharmacy or shop, you should remember that supplements do not replace a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle, so they should not go too far with consumption. Jane Maastik, a member of the Estonian Nutrition Counselors Association, puts people in the heart that excessive intake of dietary supplements can be harmful to health and should therefore be carefully considered before, which is the specific purpose.

“Healthy people may not have a nutritional deficiency in a healthy diet. Rather, dietary supplements may be needed by people who for some reason have an increased need for some nutrients or their absorption is impaired, ”explains Jane Maastik, nutrition adviser, and specifically identifies pregnant women, athletes, vegetarians, and those with stress or disease recovery.

The nutrition specialist also emphasizes that the family often makes a decision on which dietary supplement to take, but it should be kept in mind that the same preparation may not always be suitable for all family members. “All additives are not suitable for pregnant women, children, or the person is simply sensitive to some of the ingredients, so choose another additive,” says Maastik.

Avoid over-consumption of food supplements
The nutrition specialist also considers the use of such preparations in the case of the consumption of dietary supplements. “From time to time, it is expedient to change the choice of dietary supplements so that one substance does not get too much. It should also be ensured that the additives taken at the same time do not contain the same ingredients, otherwise there may be over-consumption, which poses a health risk, ”confirms the Landscape and emphasizes that from a certain dose, each vitamin will become a medicine.

Here, the nutrition specialist emphasizes that the time of a particular dietary supplement depends on the age, gender, menu, physical activity and state of health of the individual, so it is important to seek professional advice and not rely on a friend’s or acquaintance’s experience.

“This also applies to food supplements containing ingredients of plant origin, since the (over) consumption of plants known in folk medicine may also have side effects,” he says, and suggests a complex preparation when there are a need for several different dietary supplements. In such formulations, nutrients are present in the required proportions and therefore there is no risk of over-consumption.

For some substances, co-use is required as it is the basis for better absorption. “For example, the absorption of magnesium in the gastrointestinal tract is accelerated by vitamin B 6 and magnesium, in turn, activates the effect of vitamin B 6 . Vitamin D helps to absorb calcium in the gastrointestinal tract and keeps the calcium balance in the body, ”explains the nutritionist.

“Many minerals function in the body depending on each other. For example, over-consumption of calcium causes magnesium deficiency, excess sodium intake, and vice versa. Some dietary supplements have been shown to interact with drugs, so they should not be taken at the same time. For example, there is a known interaction with St. John’s wort and ginkgo tree, ”says Landscape, which is still being monitored for food supplements.

The effect of oral contraceptives is reduced by the use of St. John’s wort. Ginkgo again increases the effect of substances that affect mental function and blood glucose lowering drugs.

Common symptoms of overuse include sleep problems, difficulty concentrating, muscle weakness, mild irritability, diarrhea, digestive problems, feeling weak, nausea.

It is advisable to consult a specialist before using food supplements and to identify specific needs. Jane Landscape then recommends purchasing supplements instead of large retail chains from a pharmacy or health product stores, where you can get additional information about the product. Food supplements should not be bought from the market. If their origin is doubtful, the nutritionist suggests not to buy them.

What supplements to consume: Vitamin D
According to nutritionist Jane Maastik, a large part of the Estonian population suffers from chronic vitamin D deficiency. “Because vitamin D is pretty hard to get with food and most of the vitamin D in the skin is exposed to sunlight, it’s lacking in light of the amount of sunlight we have and there is a situation where stocks of vitamin D in the body are not enough to get this vitamin in the body all its functions, ”he explains. However, this leads to many different health problems, which is why vitamin D intake is justified.

Vitamin D is necessary for life because it contributes to the normal functioning of our immune system. It also aids in the absorption of phosphorus and calcium and normalizes muscle and bone function, supports cardiac function and reduces the risk of diabetes.

In order to find out if there is a vitamin D deficiency in the body, its blood levels should be measured. The University of Tartu Clinic recommends an optimal serum level above 75 nmol / L and this level should be guaranteed throughout the year. A study by researchers at the University of Tartu showed that Estonians suffer from vitamin D deficiency throughout the year. Even after the summer sunny season, 80% of the participants in the study had vitamin D deficiency . A serious deficiency of vitamin D (the level of <50 nmol / L) were 29% in Estonia (source ), the vitamin D-containing nutritional supplement to be consumed in the autumn and spring, which are less affected by sunlight, and a greater risk of the defect in a substance essential for life.

P äevane need : 600 to 800 IU of vitamin D per day in healthy people. In case of health problems (for example osteoporosis) and up to 2000 IU in the elderly and in adults.

Natural Sources : The most important source of vitamin D is sunlight (10-15 minutes a day). Foods include vitamin D fish liver oil, fish, avocado, nettle, wheat, spinach, barley, egg yolk. It is important to know here that it is still difficult to get the necessary amount of vitamin D from food, which is why dietary supplements are a welcome choice in addition to a healthy diet.

As a dietary supplement : Vitamin D 3 preparations (vitamin D 2 inhibits D 3 synthesis and increases inflammatory diseases).

For better intake : Consume with magnesium and in the afternoon, as it can disturb your sleep when taken just before going to bed.

Deficiency : can cause rickets and osteoporosis.

(Read more about vitamin D here . )

Omega-3 fatty acids

“Essential omega-3 fatty acids are not produced by the body itself and can only be obtained with food. However, these fatty acids are very important for health. To get enough Omega-3 fatty acids, you should consume at least 4-5 times a week. Unfortunately, fish is not a daily food for Estonians and so the omega-3 fatty acid deficiency is easy to come by. Plant sources, such as flax or hemp oil, are also not consumed regularly and in sufficient quantities, ”explains Jane Maastik.

Omega-3 fatty acids help regulate fat metabolism, have an anti-allergic effect, reduce the risk of blood clots, keep blood pressure normal, and benefit cardiovascular health.

P äevane need : 0.3-0,5grammi EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), DHA (dohosaheksanoehapet) 0,8-1,1grammi and ALA (alpha-linolenic acid).

Natural sources : animal foods, eggs, fish (salmon, mackerel, sardine, tuna, herring), seafood, linseed, flax, hemp, rape, olive, soya, walnut and pumpkin seed oil, organic milk products, algae, broccoli, cauliflower, garlic, tofu.

As a dietary supplement : fish oil preparations and it is recommended to consume those containing EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (dohohexanoic acid). Also, take ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) from vegetable origin, for example in oil made from tofu, walnuts and linseed oil.

For better intake : Take fish oil preparations with food.

Deficiency : can cause behavioral disorders and concentration difficulties in children, inhibit brain functions, can contribute to skin problems.

(Read more about omega-3 fatty acids here . )

“Magnesium is also an important mineral that we often lack. Especially in that part of the population who consume mainly refined food. Very many reactions and processes in the body depend on magnesium, and therefore the importance of magnesium should not be underestimated. The most known signs of magnesium deficiency are muscle cramps and spasms in the blood vessels, but it is also not excluded that magnesium deficiency leads to depression, chronic fatigue or insomnia, ”comments Jane Maastik.

Magnesium has an important role to play in the human body, ensuring normal metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and amino acids. Magnesium also regulates heart muscle work and blood circulation and is necessary for normal functioning of nerves and muscles. Magnesium regulates calcium, copper, zinc, potassium, vitamin D and other essential minerals in the body.

P äevane need : 380 milligrams of adult males, females 310 to 320 milligrams per day.

Natural sources : cocoa, fennel, oblong, heather, nettle, wheat bran, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, milk, meat, beans, banana, apricot, mustard powder, curry powder, coconut, pumpkin and sesame seeds, almonds, indian and hazelnuts

As a food supplement : preference is given to the preparation in the form of magnesium aspartate, citrate, fumarate. Commercial supplements usually contain 400mg of magnesium per tablet and are not recommended to exceed this amount.

Better assimilation : consume with C and B 6 -vitamiiniga, in the evenings, because magnesium helps contribute to good sleep.

Deficiency: can cause depression and mood disorders, leg cramps, insomnia, insulin resistance, hyperactivity, other type of diabetes, cardiovascular disease.

(Read more about magnesium here . )

Food supplements and multivitamins to strengthen the immune system

“In the spring and autumn, the immune system may need extra marketing to be strong and resist the seasons of anxiety. The range of these preparations is very wide, ranging from vitamin C to various herbal supplements, ”says Jane Landscape.

The main immune system enhancers are, for example, vitamins C, A, E, calcium coenzyme Q10, amino acids, flavonoids, various minerals.

According to Jane Maastik, calcium is the most important nutritional supplement for children and the elderly. Calcium is an important component of bones, teeth and other tissues. It also plays a role in transmitting nerve impulses, normalizing blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and returning to normal muscle work.

“Caution should be exercised when calcium is consumed because calcium overloads the muscles and kidneys, leading to health problems,” says Landscape. Vitamin D and magnesium contribute to calcium absorption. Coffee, alcohols, salt and sugar, however, inhibit calcium absorption. The recommended daily dose is 600-900 milligrams (according to gender and age).

In order to make the right choice as to which immune-boosting dietary supplement would be appropriate, it is advisable to take steps to a pharmacy or a store selling organic products, where you can get expert advice and decide what preparation is needed. Particular attention should also be paid to the consumption of vegetables, especially during the winter when the immune system weakens. Also, the amount of vitamins and minerals in the basement is diminished during the winter, so the quantities should be increased.

The weakened immune system is also signaled by general exhaustion after a long deep sleep, inflammation in the body, impaired digestive processes, painful cucumber and easy-to-flank frost, intermittent allergies and also slowly healing wounds. In order to avoid these symptoms, it is necessary to take the stimulants of the immune system when the body needs it most: in the early spring and winter, when there is a lot of dark time and the climate is cooling. In addition to the formulations, care should be taken to ensure that the table is versatile, with a good quality of sleep and sufficient physical activity for the body.

Finding a quality dietary supplement
Since the list of providers of food supplements is so broad, some advice should be put behind your ear to ensure the best quality. According to Jane Maastik, preference should be given to well-known manufacturers with long-term experience, whose product range includes high quality food supplements made from carefully selected raw materials.

“When choosing food supplements, natural additives should be preferred to synthetic ones, because natural vitamins are more efficiently absorbed and perform better in the body. Natural vitamins co-exist with all the necessary additives, enzymes and transporters that contribute to the absorption process, ”explains the nutritionist and adds that the product is more reliable if all the information on composition and origin is detailed on the packaging.

Careful consideration should also be given to the list of additives (preservatives, colorants, flavorings) and which additives are more specific. “Food supplements for children are often accompanied by harmful sweeteners, colorings and flavorings to make these products more appealing to children. The efficacy of such additives is really doubtful, as it can lead to unwanted side effects, so I recommend choosing food supplements that contain minimal additives, ”warns the Landscape and recommends consulting a specialist if the ingredients of the food supplements are unknown and do not know how to reduce the choice.


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